Biologiczna oczyszczalnia ścieków


A household sewage treatment plant is an autonomous plant for treatment of domestic sewage (grey sewage and black sewage) and discharging it in a treated state into the ground. Thanks to natural gravitational, mechanical, biochemical and physical phenomena occurring in the devices, they are fully environmentally friendly.

JPR AQUA, with its many years of experience, offers complete equipment that is fully adapted to all conditions. Technological knowledge and proven raw material suppliers allow us to guarantee you the highest quality equipment.

We produce local sewage treatment plants up to 450 PE (flow 65 m3 per day)!

Advantages and disadvantages of the FIL D'EAU biological sewage treatment plant

A household biological sewage treatment plant has many good points:

  • environmentally friendly design – the construction of a treatment plant at the given site ensures that the sewage does not enter the soil directly, but only in a purified form, after reduction of the relevant parameters (therefore the close environment is safe),
  • economic and financial considerations – due to low operating costs the investment pays for itself after a relatively short period of use in comparison with municipal sewage systems or archaic septic tanks,
  • accessibility of use – it basically comes down to the use of appropriate bacteria and removal of sludge which accumulates in the tank, as well as periodical inspection of the device in order to control its proper functioning,
  • universal character – the devices can be used for all objects generating domestic sewage, practically in all terrain and ground conditions with the application of appropriate assembly rules,
  • durability – JPR AQUA grants a ten-year warranty for its equipment, thus assuring that all quality requirements dictated by law and production experience are met; unfavourable weather conditions have no negative impact on the equipment operation
  • no nuisance – no unpleasant smells are emitted (condition: correct execution of high ventilation, in accordance with the art of construction; there is no need to worry about overfilling the tank (flow-through device), or the need for frequent emptying (as in the case of a septic tank),
  • easy to install – tanks are relatively lightweight, no special equipment is required for setting, biological treatment plants do not require large investment space (this is a big advantage in the case of small plots)

When it comes to biological sewage treatment, in general, the only drawback is the high one-off financial effort at the start of the investment. In the case of septic tanks or municipal sewage systems, the financial outlays are relatively low for individual short periods of time. However, when considering a systematic approach to sewage management, a longer timeframe should be taken into account. The monthly operating costs of a biological sewage treatment plant are very low compared to the other solutions mentioned above. In addition, the initial, one-off expense is very often “mitigated” by subsidies offered by individual municipalities for the purchase of such equipment.

Biological sewage treatment plants of JPR AQUA brand are proven technology and confirmed quality, ensuring high degree of purification (up to 98%). Feel invited to acquaint yourself with our offer.

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Domestic sewage treatment in a  household biological treatment plant takes place in two successive stages:

  • primary treatment (anaerobic) in the Family septic tank
  • secondary treatment (aerobic bacteria) in the FIL D’EAU biological bed

STAGE I – preliminary-treatment – Family septic tank

The preliminary treatment of domestic sewage takes place in a septic tank. Impurities enter the tank through the inlet pipe which slows down the flow and minimizes the turbulence of flotation substances and mineral and organic deposits (deflector). The particles floating in the sewage fall to the bottom and form sludge which undergoes a slow process of anaerobic digestion. On the surface of the sewage in the septic tank, the so-called “scum” is formed, which is foam created during the fermentation process from various substances contained in the sewage. The particles of impurities are decomposed into water-soluble substances and those insoluble mineral substances which remain at the bottom of the tank. For the fermentation process to be effective, it must take at least 3 days and it is therefore essential to select the appropriate capacity of the vessel depending on the population equivalent and therefore the amount of sewage to be treated. The pre-treated sewage flows additionally through the filter for further treatment (stage II). The additional filter in question is a basket filled with stone – puzzolana, which retains suspended solids and fats and, thanks to its specific properties, reacts with Ca(OH)2 to form silicates and aluminosilicates, which allows phosphorus to be removed from the sewage.

Due to the principle of operation, and also due to the method of selecting the appropriate volume of the device depending on the number of users, it should be emphasised that the treatment plant should not be fed with, among other things, rainwater and drainage water, large quantities of poorly contaminated water from other sources – swimming pools, barrels (their quantity fluctuates, sometimes it is very large, therefore it would adversely affect the expected results of treatment), rinses from water softener filters (washings with salt and its solutions), substances of industrial character: oils, greases, paints, solvents, varnishes, condensates from furnaces (the condensate should be discharged into the outflow of the treatment plant), fats in large quantities.


STAGE II – secondary treatment – FIL D’EAU biological bed

The FIL D’EAU biological bed is set behind the FAMILY settling tank and connected to it by gravity. It is a device treating domestic sewage with aerobic bacteria. The carrier of aerobic bacteria forming biomass, whose food components are sewage, is a structure of submerged textile fibres. These fibres are stretched on frames placed perpendicularly to the tank axis at such a distance from each other that they allow the maximum flow of the liquid stream (allowing the removal of dead bacteria), while at the same time protecting against too large flow variation. The particular precision of the device design prevents the occurrence of potentially hypoxic areas, which could result in uncontrolled bacterial growth. The fibres used (POLITEX type) have a diameter of 50 microns. It is estimated that a square metre of surface with textile fibres contains one hundred square metres of active surface on which biomass accumulates.

Oxygen is supplied through diffusers placed at the bottom of the tank by means of an electric box mounted compressor. Fine bubble aeration increases the conversion rate of organic matter through biochemical reactions (oxidation and reduction). Thanks to aerobic bacteria, organic and ammonium nitrogen is converted to less harmful NO3 nitrate through oxidation (nitrification).

In the biological bed, there is an integrated secondary settling tank – a mobile chamber in which a recirculation pump is installed (in beds for more than 12 PE the recirculation pump is located in a separate tank – the secondary settling tank, connected behind the biological bed). Thanks to recirculation, it is possible to stop suspended solids from entering the environment as much as possible – the efficiency of the treatment process is increased by the return of active biomass to the FAMILY septic tank. The recirculation process results in a large volume of sewage passing through the treatment cycle twice. In addition, recirculation increases the resistance of the treatment system to irregularities in sewage inflow (e.g. during absence of users). The recirculation pump is controlled by a timer (located in the electrical box) and operates from 1 to 15 minutes per day depending on the size of the unit.


  • enables the denitrification process, i.e. the breakdown of nitrates (formed in an aerobic environment) into oxygen and free nitrogen in the septic tank,
  • enables the transfer of residual sludge to a septic tank, thus eliminating the need to take out the sludge from the biological bed.

The effects of the reduction of individual parameters in the FIL D’EAU biological bed treatment plant are presented in the table below.



CharacteristicsEfficiency in %Raw sewage at the inlet 
mg/l into the station
Sewage from the station at the exit
in mg/l
Suspended solids96-9850613
Total nitrogen
Ammonium nitrogen
Total phosphorus



Technological advantages of the FIL D’EAU biological treatment plant by JPR AQUA:

  1. Technology tested by the French notified laboratory CSTB with the number CAPE AT 09-81-V1.
  2. Large capacity of the treatment plant.
  3. Wide range of equivalent population.
  4. Simple plant construction.
  5. The design based on independent tanks gives great flexibility when choosing a place and installing the treatment plant.
  6. Corrugated tank structure.
  7. Calibrated outlet (shown on the drawing in the construction section).
  8. Decompression valve (vent) on the parallel plane of the inlet.
  9. Low price in relation to product quality.



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